Microbial, chemical and sensory properties of shalgams made using different production methods
BACKGROUND: Shalgam is a traditional Turkish lactic acid fermented beverage. This study examined the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of shalgams produced by various methods. RESULTS: Different production methods using traditional method (dough fermentation and carrot fermentation), direct method (without dough fermentation) and with the addition of starter cultures were applied to produce shalgams. The final amounts of total acidity as lactic acid (6.33-9.22 g L-1), pH (3.42-3.55), the counts of lactic acid bacteria (7.43-7.74 log CFU mL-1), total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (7.03-7.46 log CFU mL-1), yeasts (6.96-7.50 log CFU mL-1) and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (4.21-5.19 log CFU mL-1) were found. Lactobacillus plantarum and then Lb. buchneri were the most frequently isolated bacteria in shalgam samples. Sensory evaluation of shalgams showed that sample produced using traditional method with starter additions obtained highest scores. CONCLUSION: This study showed that addition of starter lactic acid bacteria cultures improved the quality of shalgams. Analysis of the results indicated that the direct method for the production of shalgam is not preferable. The data obtained can be useful for industrial shalgam producers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.