ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF HISTORICAL MINING ENTERPRISES IN GUMUSLER VILLAGE AND CAMARDI TOWNS REGION (NIGDE, TURKEY)
Anatolia and in particular Nigde, has an important place in terms of mining history. The inscription belonging to the late Hittite period is the world's first written mining license, and it is written on the rocks located in the Ulukisla area. Nigde stands out by mining operations of Sn, Au, Cu and Ag in ancient period, and Sb, Hg, Fe, Pb and Zn in the near term (the 18th century and later). Today, slags and rusts remained in these mines take attention with two aspects. The first one is economic and the second one is environmental. These slags and rusts have no economic value when they were produced, but now they have economic value. For example, slags in the Camardi region have the tenor of 3,25% Cu, %5,5-6 Pb, %2,5-3 Zn, 0,8-1,5 ppm Au and 250 ppm Ag. These values are economic in current conditions of mining technology. In addition, the environmental issues of slags of these areas are addressed. As content of Gumusler slag is pretty high to be taken in consideration. Given that the toxic elements found in these slags are most likely to be in a free state, these areas are considered to be possible sources of contamination of the living. Therefore, in order to prevent environmental issues, a careful investigation on the old mining slugs in Gumusler and Maden areas has to be taken urgently.