The 2001 Adana landslide and its destructive effects, Turkey
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The current study deals with a catastrophic landslide that occurred due to heavy rainfall in Adana, Southern Turkey in 2001. The research area, which is one of the largest populated districts in Adana, and one of the most tropical places between the Middle East and southern Europe, has about 25,000 people. On the basis of geological and geotechnical surveys, the landslide phenomena and the effects of landslide are examined. To understand the slide mechanism of the landslide, ground reconnaissance, laboratory and in situ tests are conducted. It is observed that the clayey and silty layers of the site are heavily saturated due to extreme rainfall in winter, and consequently sheared. The landslide consists of a block sliding in the upper portions and a debris flow/soil flow component around the margins of the sliding blocks in the middle parts and at the toe. Although there was no loss of human life, it has caused significant economic losses. Besides, it is determined that if precautions are not taken around the landslide area, larger landslides could definitely occur in the future.