The role of hydrogeology in solution-subsidence development and its environmental impacts; a case-study for Sazlica (Nigde, Turkey)
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Solution-subsidence and other types of collapse failures developed in the vicinity of Sazlica have been a major source of environmental problems such as groundwater pollution, soil erosion, and foundation failures. Extensive pumping of water from the Lake Dipsiz during irrigation seasons creates landslide developments at the shores of the lake. Five stages of landslide development were observed in the unconsolidated soils around Lake Dipsiz. Bowl-shaped solution-subsidence features with depths from 1 to 3 m and diameters between 1 and 60 m were formed due to excess pumping, and recharge and discharge features of unconfined aquifer. The pumping activities must be controlled to prevent further environmental problems. Lake Dipsiz and other subsidence developments are the groundwater exposure areas highly vulnerable to contamination. The proposed remedies for overcoming the environmental problems are the establishment of conservation areas around such natural features; ceasing the removal of top soil, controlling the urbanization, and keeping the livestock farming away from the areas susceptible to pollution.