Influence of addition of different amounts of black carrot (Daucus carota) on shalgam quality
Shalgam (salgam), is a traditional Turkish lactic acid-fermented beverage. It is produced from the lactic acid fermentation of black carrot the main raw material, rock salt, sourdough, bulgur flour, turnip, and drinkable water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different amounts (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, and 20%) of black carrot (Daucus carota) on shalgam quality using traditional method. According to the results, increasing the quantity of black carrot rose the levels of total acidity, solids, ash, colour intensity, total phenolic compounds (OD280) and colour index. There was significant relation between the amount of black carrot used and the amount of those substances. The total acidity expressed as lactic acid varied from 4.95 to 7.45 g/L and pH from 3.39 to 3.49 at the end of fermentation. Total lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total yeast counts reached generally maximum numbers on the 4th day of fermentation, then a decrease was observed. Coliform bacteria gradually declined during the fermentation. No coliform bacteria were isolated at the end. According to sensory evaluation, the most preferred samples were 17.5% and 20% carrot additions, whereas, sample A with 10% of black carrot did not have an overall acceptance. Increasing amount of black carrot increased to overall acceptability of shalgams by all panelists. Eventually, it could be stated that black carrot must be used at least in the rate of 15% for the production of shalgam beverage. That amount will reduce production costs of manufacturers.